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Liquidity and uncertainty lead to unforeseeable market risk. The team is responsible for assessing the sensitivity of the institution’s earning and value of its capital to adverse changes in interest rates, foreign exchanges rates, commodity prices, or equity prices. Specialists identify, measures and control exposure to market risk given the institution's size, complexity and risk profile.
Due to the nature and complexity of certain risk exposure, the risk management specialists have to monitor the trading positions and foreign operations. The approach has been implemented enterprise-wide and gained greater strategic significance after the global financial crisis.
Inefficiencies in internal controls and corporate governance can lead to financial losses through error, fraud, or failure to perform. Traders and lending officers conduct business in an unethical or risky manner are examples of operational risk issues.
Not just banks, insurance company may encounter operational risks like under-reserving, under-supervised, aggressive expansion or reinsurance abuse. Scenario analysis and model results are usually provided to the management to assess the risk level and appetite at all times.
Loans are the largest and most obvious source of credit risk but there are more. Credit risk exists indeed throughout the activities of the financial institutions, either in the banking book or trading book, and on or off the balance sheet. All kinds of financing activities, liability commitments and transactions have to be monitored well.
The credit risk management team has to establish an appropriate credit risk environment and a sound credit-granting process, maintain an appropriate credit administration, measurement and monitoring process, and ensure adequate controls over credit risk. A comprehensive risk management program should also be applied in conjunction with sound practices related to the assessment of asset quality, adequacy of provisions and reserves, and disclosure of credit risk.